Printing Terms E-L

Embossing The process of raising, by an uninked block, letters or designs on card or strong paper.
Encapsulating The application of transparent plastic film, usually with a high-gloss finish, to both sides of the surface of printing matter to enhance its appearance and to increase its durability. The laminate is sealed to itself all round the edges.
Encapsulated postscript (EPS) A file format (based on the postscript language) which describes an image or graphic as a series of postscript commands, and can be used to transfer completed files between programmes/applications. EPS graphics can contain raster or vector elements, or both.
Flatbed scanner An original is placed facedown on a sheet of glass and an arm equipped with a light and an electronic sensor sweeps under the glass. This is the most popular type of scanner for home use; however, it offers limited resolution and limited dynamic range. See “Drum scanner”.
Flexography A printing technique where printing plates are made from a flexible rubber material and stretched around a drum on a web press. Flexography is usually used for very high-speed, specialty applications, such as printing cardboard cartons, where high reproduction quality is not necessary.
Font An alphabet of letters in a particular style. Fonts can belong to any of several types (such as sans serif, decorative, black letter, etc.).
Font family A collection of alphabets in a similar style but in different weights or classifications.
Four colour process Colour printing by means of the three subtractive primary colours (yellow, magenta, cyan) and black superimposed: the colours of the original having been separated by a photographic or electronic processes.
GSM or g/m2 Abbreviation of grams per square metre. A method of indicating the substance of paper or board (whatever the size of the paper/board or number of sheets in the package) on the basis of weight in grams per square metre.
Gamut The overall range of colours that can be produced by a particular colour model. (Most people believe, for example, that all the visible colours can be produced by mixing red, green, and blue light, but this is not so; there are colours which no combination of red, green, and blue can produce.) The colour model normally used to produce colours on press, CMYK, has a very restricted gamut, meaning that many colours cannot be reproduced in CMYK under any circumstances.
Gathering To place in their correct order the sections or sheets to make up a book.
Gradient A blend from one colour to another colour.
Graphics interchange format (GIF) An 8 bit colour image file format that can contain at most 256 different colours or shades of grey. GIF images are often used on the World Wide Web.
Gravure printing A process in which the printing areas engraved into the gravure cylinder are below the non printing surface.   The recessess are filled with ink and the surplus is cleaned off the non-printing area with a   blade before the paper contacts the whole surface and lifts the ink from the recessess.
Greyscale Uses up to 250 shades of grey to show an image/tone. Each pixel has a brightness value from 0 (black) to 255 (white).
Halftone A pattern of dots arranged on an imaginary grid to simulate shades of grey or levels of colour. Many printers and all printing presses cannot reproduce a continuous tone image; instead, the image is simulated by printing dots of various sizes (the darker the tone, the larger the dots). The pattern of dots is called a “halftone screen.” Halftones are specified by how fine the imaginary grid is (and how small the individual dots are). Newspapers are printed with a halftone screen of 85 lines per inch, meaning that the imaginary grid has 85 individual dots per inch; most magazines are printed at 133 lines per inch; most catalogues, 150 lines per inch; high-quality lithographs and artwork can be reproduced at 175, 200, or even 300 lines per inch. Halftones can also be produced with different kinds of dots; the most common halftone screens are made with dots that are shaped like ellipses, but round dots, square dots, line-shaped dots, and other dot patterns can also be used. Colour images are reproduced on a printing press by creating a halftone screen for each colour of ink, and printing the halftones directly on top of one another in a pattern called a rosette. See also stochastic screen.
Heat-set drying Drying a web or sheet of paper or board by passing it through a drying unit which forms part of the machine. Special heat-setting inks have to be used.
Hexachrome A colour model which uses six primary colours (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Orange, Green, and Black) to simulate a full range of colours. Hexachrome is sometimes used to print a job on press where very high colour fidelity and saturation is required.
Hickey Spot or ‘bullseye’ in the printed area, caused by small particles of grit on the printing plate.
Hot-foil A printing technique using very thin aluminium foil in a variety of metallic colours, such as gold, silver, red and blue. The metallic foil is released from carrier base onto a substrate by the application of heat and pressure from a metal printing plate which bears the image to be hot-foiled.
House correction Corrections in gallery or page proofs, other than those made by the author.
Imagesetter A type of printer which prints pages on sheets of photographic film, not on paper. Imagesetters are used to produce the film which will be used to make printing plates. Imagesetters are much higher resolution than conventional computer printers; they typically print at 2400 dpi, 3600 dpi, or higher.
Imposition The process of rearranging the pages of a document, such as a catalogue or book, to put the pages into a sequence suitable for running on a printing press. An imposed file is printed in flats, and the printed sheets of paper are folded and cut when the book is assembled to create a finished piece with the pages in the correct order. A document that is in readers spreads must be imposed before it can be printed on a press.
Ink jet A non-impact printing process in which droplets of ink are projected onto paper or other material, in a computer-determined pattern.
Insert A piece of paper or card laid between the leaves of a book and not secured in anyway.
Intaglio A type of press or printing technique which uses engraved plates. The image on the plate is engraved into the plate’s surface; then, ink is spread across the plate and wiped off, and the plate is pressed into the paper with great force. The result is a “raised” printing on the surface of the paper e.g. Paper money and postage stamps.
ISDN This is an acronym for Intergrated Services Digitial Network – a telephone network service which carries data, voice transmissions by digital means, not analogue.
JPEG A form of image compression that reduces the size of a graphic file by discarding some image data. JPEG compression can make a file very small, but it is “lossy,” meaning that image quality is lost when the image is compressed. A high compression rate(low quality) will give a low quality image but small file size, a low compression (max quality setting) will give a high quality image but a larger file size. (JPEG stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, the industry body that created it.)
Kerning The process of adjusting the space between two letters in a piece of text, to make a more pleasing fit.
Laminating The application of transparent plastic film, usually with a high-gloss finish, to the surface of printing matter to enhance its appearance and to increase its durability.
Landscape Oblong loose or folded printed sheet, or book, having its long sides at head and foot.
Laser Light Amplification by Simulated Emission of Radiation – a fine beam of light, sometimes with considerable energy, used in image setting, colour scanning, copy scanning, plate making, engraving and cutting and creasing forme-making.
Layout The process of assembling words, images, and other elements on a page to form a finished piece.
Leading The space between lines of type in a block of text. Pronounced “ledding.” The name comes from the old-fashioned practice of increasing the space between lines of type by adding strips of lead between blocks of metal type. Leading is specified in points, and includes the point size of the text; so for example 10 point text set with 10 point leading would have the lines of type touching each other. By typesetter’s convention, the average amount of leading used in a normal block of body copy is 120% of the point size of the type; so for example 10 point type is normally set with 12-point leading.
Letterpress printing A process in which the printed surface of metal, plastic photopolymer or rubber is raised above the nonprinting surface.   The ink rollers and the substrate touch only the relief printing surface.
Limp cover A flexible book cover, as distinct from a stiff board cover.
Line screen A measure of the distance between the rows of dots in a printed halftone, usually expressed in lines per inch or lines per centimetre.
Lithographic printing A process in which the printing and non-printing surfaces are on the same plane and the substrate makes contact with the whole surface. The printing part of the surface is treated to receive and transmit ink to the paper, usually via a blanket; the non-printing surface is treated to attract water and thus rejects ink from the ink roller, which touches the surface.
Look-through The appearance of paper or board when held up against a strong light.

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